[[[Live Sport!]((]] Mercury - Sun live free 01.09.2023
 Surface conditions and exosphere Composite of the north pole of Mercury, where NASA confirmed the discovery of a large volume of water ice, in permanently dark craters that are found there.  The surface temperature of Mercury ranges from 100 to 700 K (−173 to 427 °C; −280 to 800 °F) at the most extreme places: 0°N, 0°W, or 180°W. It never rises above 180 K at the poles,  due to the absence of an atmosphere and a steep temperature gradient between the equator and the poles. The subsolar point reaches about 700 K during perihelion (0°W or 180°W), but only 550 K at aphelion (90° or 270°W).
4503. 62. hdl:2060/20020090713. PMID 17741171. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2017. ^ "Scientists see Mercury in a new light". Science Daily. February 28, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. ^ a b c d e f g Spudis, Paul D. (2001). "The Geological History of Mercury". Workshop on Mercury: Space Environment, Surface, and Interior, Chicago (1097): 100. Bibcode:2001mses. conf.. 100S. ^ Ritzel, Rebecca (December 20, 2012).
; Weider, Shoshana Z. (2019). "The Surface Composition of Mercury". Elements. 15 (1): 33–38. 2138/gselements. 15. 33. S2CID 135051680. ^ "Categories for Naming Features on Planets and Satellites". Retrieved August 20, 2011. ^ Strom, Robert G. (1979). "Mercury: a post-Mariner assessment". 24 (1): 3–70. Bibcode:1979SSRv... 24.... 3S. 1007/BF00221842. S2CID 122563809. ^ Broadfoot, A. Lyle; Kumar, Shailendra; Belton, Michael J. ; McElroy, Michael B.
 Like the Moon and Venus, Mercury exhibits phases as seen from Earth. It is "new" at inferior conjunction and "full" at superior conjunction. The planet is rendered invisible from Earth on both of these occasions because of its being obscured by the Sun,  except its new phase during a transit. Mercury is technically brightest as seen from Earth when it is at a full phase. Although Mercury is farthest from Earth when it is full, the greater illuminated area that is visible and the opposition brightness surge more than compensates for the distance.  The opposite is true for Venus, which appears brightest when it is a crescent, because it is much closer to Earth than when gibbous.
59 and 10. 61 times the solar constant (amount of the Sun's energy received at 1 astronomical unit, which is roughly the distance between Earth and the Sun). Mercury orbits the Sun in a 3:2 spin–orbit resonance, meaning that relative to the background stars, it rotates on its axis exactly three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun. [a] Counterintuitively, due to Mercury's slow rotation, an observer on the planet would see only one Mercurian solar day (176 Earth days) every two Mercurian solar years (88 Earth days each).
8387 for Earth, 1. 351 for Mars, and 10. 05 for 1566 Icarus.  Observation Image mosaic by Mariner 10, 1974 Mercury's apparent magnitude is calculated to vary between −2. 48 (brighter than Sirius) around superior conjunction and +7. 25 (below the limit of naked-eye visibility) around inferior conjunction.  The mean apparent magnitude is 0. 23 while the standard deviation of 1. 78 is the largest of any planet. The mean apparent magnitude at superior conjunction is −1.
 A notable basin is the 400 km wide, multi-ring Tolstoj Basin that has an ejecta blanket extending up to 500 km from its rim and a floor that has been filled by smooth plains materials. Beethoven Basin has a similar-sized ejecta blanket and a 625 km diameter rim.  Like the Moon, the surface of Mercury has likely incurred the effects of space weathering processes, including solar wind and micrometeorite impacts.  Plains There are two geologically distinct plains regions on Mercury.  Gently rolling, hilly plains in the regions between craters are Mercury's oldest visible surfaces,  predating the heavily cratered terrain. These inter-crater plains appear to have obliterated many earlier craters, and show a general paucity of smaller craters below about 30 km in diameter.
1 in) apertures. However, great care must be taken to obstruct the Sun from sight because of the extreme risk for eye damage.  This method bypasses the limitation of twilight observing when the ecliptic is located at a low elevation (e. g. on autumn evenings). Ground-based telescope observations of Mercury reveal only an illuminated partial disk with limited detail. The first of two spacecraft to visit the planet was Mariner 10, which mapped about 45% of its surface from 1974 to 1975. The second is the MESSENGER spacecraft, which after three Mercury flybys between 2008 and 2009, attained orbit around Mercury on March 17, 2011,  to study and map the rest of the planet.  The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Mercury at all, due to safety procedures that prevent its pointing too close to the Sun.
"Ballet isn't rocket science, but the two aren't mutually exclusive, either". The Washington Post. Washington, D. C., United States. Retrieved December 22, 2012. ^ Shiga, David (January 30, 2008). "Bizarre spider scar found on Mercury's surface". NewScientist. com news service. ^ Schultz, Peter H. ; Gault, Donald E. (1975). "Seismic effects from major basin formations on the moon and Mercury". Earth, Moon, and Planets. 12 (2): 159–175. Bibcode:1975Moon...
(SOCCER!) Mercury VS Sun live free 31 August 2023
(July 12, 1974). "Mercury's Atmosphere from Mariner 10: Preliminary Results". Science. 185 (4146): 166–169. Bibcode:1974Sci... 185.. 166B. 1126/science. 185. 4146. 166. PMID 17810510. S2CID 7790470. ^ Geology of the solar system. IMAP 2596. U. Geological Survey. 1997. 3133/i2596. ^ Head, James W. (1981). "Tectonic Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets" (PDF). 213 (4503): 62–76. Bibcode:1981Sci... 213... 62H. 715. 4402. 213.
However, this does not mean that the two planets are closest over time. For example, essentially because Mercury is closer to the Sun than Venus, Mercury spends more time in proximity to Earth; it could, therefore, be said that Mercury is the planet that is "closest to Earth when averaged over time".
Mercury transit 2019 live stream: Watch Mercury pass in